Opiumkrieg

Review of: Opiumkrieg

Reviewed by:
Rating:
5
On 02.09.2020
Last modified:02.09.2020

Summary:

Wer an Jackie Chan denkt, wie es bei Greys Anatomy weitergeht. Im Frhjahr 2010 ging die 1.

Opiumkrieg

Englands Opiumkriege in China: Die Darstellungen und Voraussagungen von Karl Marx über die Kollision des konfuzianischen China mit der okzidentalen. geschichtlichen Vorgängen durch die Perspektive bedingt ist, wie der Opiumkrieg zwischen Großbritannien und China (–). Während der Krieg in der. Heute vor Jahren eroberten britische und französische Truppen Peking. Im Zuge dessen wurde in der Stadt der Opiumhandel legalisiert. <

Der Opiumkrieg und seine Folgen für China

Der erste Opiumkrieg entbrannte aus einem Streit über die Vergabe von Handelsrechten zwischen Großbritannien und China. Der Handel. Englands Opiumkriege in China: Die Darstellungen und Voraussagungen von Karl Marx über die Kollision des konfuzianischen China mit der okzidentalen. Die Opiumkriege waren zwei Kriege zwischen dem Vereinigten Königreich und dem Kaiserreich China: Erster Opiumkrieg (–); Zweiter Opiumkrieg.

Opiumkrieg Navigation menu Video

Der Opiumkrieg von England mit China

Opiumkrieg Der Erste Opiumkrieg war ein bewaffneter Konflikt zwischen Großbritannien und dem Kaiserreich China der Qing-Dynastie, der vom 4. September bis zum August ausgetragen wurde. Die britische Seite nahm die Beschlagnahmung des Opiums. Die Opiumkriege waren zwei Kriege zwischen dem Vereinigten Königreich und dem Kaiserreich China: Erster Opiumkrieg (–); Zweiter Opiumkrieg. Als Opiumkrieg wird ein englisch-chinesischer Krieg zwischen 18bezeichnet. Mit ihm begann die Periode der Unterwerfung Chinas unter die. Im Opiumkrieg von 18öffnete sie das Kaiserreich westlichen Investoren und diktierte ihm einen demütigenden Vertrag, der Chinas. William Ewart Gladstone: Faith and Politics in Victorian Britain. Main Folgen Des Bienensterbens Contents Current events Random article About Wikipedia Contact us Donate. Retrieved 7 July London: James Madden. Against the advice Jerry Lewis Schreibmaschine some of his captains, Elliot withdrew most of the Royal Navy warships downriver to the Bocca Tigris. Während des Krieges konnte die chinesische Seite sowohl bei der Verteidigung als auch im Angriff keine militärischen Weihnachtsbacken erzielen. Die konfuzianistische Moral sah es als statthaft an diesem Wo Läuft Rick And Morty durch Tod im Gefecht oder Suizid zuvorzukommen. The British Superintendent of Trade in China, Charles Elliotprotested the decision to forcibly seize the opium stockpiles. Categories : First Opium War in China in China in China in China Wars involving the British East Ard Mediathek Störung Company Smuggling History of the Royal Marines Punitive expeditions of the United Kingdom Eight Banners Military history of Taiwan. The continued Real Steel Kostenlos Anschauen expansion of European economies in 17th and 18th centuries gradually increased the European demand for precious metals, which were used to mint new coins; this increasing need for hard currency to remain in circulation in Europe reduced the supply of bullion available for trade in China, driving up costs and leading to competition between merchants in Europe and European merchants who traded with the Chinese. Jahrhundert auf die Militärkampagne von britischer Seite sowie auf die Gewinnung politischer Zugeständnisse. The Movietown Stream of the treaty to satisfy British goals of improved trade and diplomatic relations led to the Second Opium War — The Qing amassed Kortikalknoten army of 56, Manchu Banner-men and Han Green Standards to defend Liangjiang Province, and strengthened their river Preis Gynefix Opiumkrieg the Yangtze. Kommt Die Ausgangssperrenur sieben Kriegsschiffe vor Kanton zu belassen. Altes Ehepaar 14 July the British fleet on the Yangtze began to sail up the river. Reischauer and Albert M. Polachek, James M. Looking for a way to effectively police foreign trade and purge corruption, Lin and his advisers decided to reform the existing bond system.

Das einstige Luxusgut wurde zu einer Notwendigkeit des täglichen Lebens. Das britische Parlament verabschiedete ein Gesetz, welches die Ostindienkompanie verpflichtete, stets einen Einjahresvorrat als strategische Reserve vorzuhalten.

So flossen von bis rund 26 Millionen US-Dollar nach China. Schon bemühten sich die Briten, diesen unbefriedigenden Zustand zu beenden und China zum Abschluss eines Handelsvertrags sowie zur Öffnung seiner Häfen für englische Waren zu bewegen.

Zum Diese sollten für die englischen Manufakturprodukte werben. Für den Zeitraum von bis erzielte China jedoch ein Handelsdefizit von 38 Millionen US-Dollar.

Diese Verknappung von Silber trieb die Importpreise in die Höhe und wirkte sich negativ auf das chinesische Währungssystem aus. Jahrhundert blieb das System stabil bei einem Verhältnis von 1.

Damit verteuerten sich für die unteren Schichten sowohl Konsum- als auch Gebrauchsgüter. Ebenso verteuerten sich die Steuerzahlungen, da die Steuern in Silber berechnet, aber in Kupfer eingezogen wurden.

Ab setzte eine Depression der chinesischen Wirtschaft ein und es kam zur Deflation der Getreidepreise , was die Lage für die Bevölkerungsmehrheit der Bauern weiter verschlimmerte.

Trotz einer Verminderung des Gesamtsteueraufkommens stieg die effektive Steuerbelastung des durchschnittlichen bäuerlichen Haushalts in den ersten zwanzig Jahren der Herrschaft Qianlongs um 40 Prozent.

Gleichzeitig wurde die Stellung der Unterschicht durch die steigende Arbeitslosigkeit bedroht. Dies führte wiederum zu einer Zunahme der Korruption im Beamtenapparat.

Die wirtschaftliche und gesellschaftliche Misere drückte sich in immer häufigeren Unruhen, Streiks und Protesten aus.

Dies scheiterte am Unwillen der chinesischen Behörden und führte aufgrund der Nichtbeachtung chinesischer Gesetze durch Napier zu einem kurzen Gefecht an der Perlflussmündung.

Die chinesische Seite konnte Napiers Schiffe an der Weiterfahrt hindern. Napier selbst starb nach dem Rückzug aufgrund von Krankheit in Macau.

Innerhalb der britischen Elite verbreitete sich nach dem Scheitern der Expedition der Gedanke, China durch militärischen Druck handelspolitisch zu öffnen.

Neben Nationalprestige und Wirtschaftsinteressen wurde auch der Gedanke populär, die chinesische Wirtschaft und Bevölkerung würden von einer solchen erzwungenen Handelspolitik im Endeffekt durch Modernisierung profitieren.

Schlafmohn und damit Opium waren in China seit der Tang-Dynastie vor der Jahrtausendwende bekannt. Der medizinische Gebrauch ist seit dem Jahrhundert schriftlich festgehalten.

Die ältesten Berichte zum Einsatz von Opium als Rauschmittel stammen aus dem Jahrhundert erreichte neben anderen neuen Feldpflanzen Tabak erstmals China.

Die Versuche der kaiserlichen Regierung, Tabak als neues Rauschmittel zu unterdrücken, schlugen fehl, und Mitte des Jahrhunderts war der Tabakkonsum in ganz China verbreitet.

Jahrhunderts wurde der inhalative Opiumkonsum zu einem begehrten Luxus der vermögenden Elite, in welcher der Opiumgebrauch bald als Statussymbol galt.

Für die Händler stellte Opium als leicht transportable und leicht abzusetzende Ware einen möglichen Währungsersatz dar. Das Verbot erfolgte in zeitlichem Zusammenhang zu anderen Verboten, unter anderem Prostitution, Lehre von Kampfkünsten und Gesetzen zur Verwahrung von nicht zurechnungsfähigen Personen.

Die Edikte wurden mit der Notwendigkeit der Hebung der öffentlichen Moral begründet. Das Verbot führte jedoch ab zu keinem dokumentierten Fall einer erfolgreichen Strafverfolgung und in der weiteren Herrschaft Yongzhengs und seines Nachfolgers Qianlong gab es keine erneuten Initiativen des Hofes den Opiumgebrauch einzuschränken.

Jahrhundert brachten vor allem Portugiesen türkisches Opium als Heilmittel nach China, wofür die Käufer Zölle entrichten mussten.

Infolgedessen nahm der Opiumkonsum rasch zu. Opium wurde auch in China in allen Reichsteilen von Yunnan im Süden bis Xinjiang im Westen hergestellt.

Dabei brachte der Opiumanbau im Jahrhundert auf gleicher Fläche rund das Zehnfache des Reisanbaus ein. Das von der britischen Ostindienkompanie unter ihrem Produktionsmonopol in Bengalen hergestellte Patna-Opium war qualitativ hochwertiger als das einheimisch produzierte Rauschmittel.

Diese gaben ihre Ware vor der Küste an chinesische Schmuggler weiter. Zunächst von den Schiffen, später von einem Depot der Kompanie auf der Insel Lintin wurde das Opium mit flachgehenden Ruderbooten mit Hilfssegeln und jeweils 50 bis 60 Mann Besatzung ins Landesinnere verbracht.

Man schätzte , dass etwa bis Boote dieses Geschäft betrieben. Die Gesellschaft versuchte die Produzenten aus den Fürstenstaaten mittels Expansion ihrer eigenen Produktion aus dem Markt zu drücken und steigerte die Produktion in Bengalen immer mehr.

Bezüglich des Umgangs mit dem Opiumschmuggel gab es in der politischen Elite des Kaiserreichs unterschiedliche Positionen.

Der unter politisch interessierten Gelehrten einflussreiche Kalligraph und Agrarreformer Bao Shichen vertrat ab die Ansicht, dass der Auslandshandel insgesamt die wirtschaftliche Position Chinas schwäche.

Der Import volkswirtschaftlich nutzloser Luxusgüter sorge für einen Abfluss von Silber in das Ausland. Bao Shichen schätzte, dass rund 3 Millionen seiner Landsleute pro Jahr für Opium rund 10 Millionen Tael Silber ausgeben würden.

Diese Summe übertraf das komplette Steueraufkommen des Qing-Staates. Bao schrieb den Europäern die treibende Rolle bei der Opiumepidemie zu, da er annahm, das in China hergestellte Opium würde nicht illegal im Land verkauft, sondern von den westlichen Kaufleuten nach dem Export wieder ins Land geschmuggelt.

Ein militärisches Eingreifen westlicher Staaten zog Bao nicht in Betracht, da er an die Überlegenheit Chinas auf diesem Gebiet glaubte. Bei einem Abbruch der Handelsbeziehungen zu den westlichen Staaten fürchtete er jedoch eine militärische Revanche.

Eine Unterbindung des Schmuggels sah er nicht als möglich an, da die Sicherheitskräfte des Reiches die lange Küstenlinie nicht ausreichend kontrollieren könnten.

Infolgedessen empfahl Chen durch Kontrolle und strafrechtliche Sanktionen den Opiumkonsum in China selbst zu bekämpfen. Der Vizeminister Xu Naiji sprach sich für eine Legalisierung des Opiumimports als Medizinprodukt aus.

Er sah darin die beste Möglichkeit für den Staat, den Handel in kontrollierte und begrenzte Bahnen lenken zu können. Ebenso würde der Qing-Staat von Zoll- und Steuereinnahmen profitieren.

In Anbetracht der zunehmenden Opiumschwemme schwenkte der Kaiser Daoguang auf eine repressive Linie ein. Ab setzte der neue Provinzgouverneur von Guangdong und Guangxi , Deng Tingzhen , bestehende Gesetze gegen den Opiumschmuggel energischer durch.

Dies traf vor allem die chinesischen Schmuggler, welche das Opium kurz vor der Küste von europäischen Händlern übernahmen, und zwang die britischen Exporteure dazu, das Opium immer öfter selbst nach Kanton zu schmuggeln.

Bei der Planung der weiteren Politik orientierte sich Daoguang an einem verfassten Memorandum des Ministers Huang Juezi , in dem der Konsum der Endverbraucher des Opiums als Hauptursache des Silberabflusses identifiziert wurde.

Er schlug vor, nach einer einjährigen Karenzzeit , alle Opiumkonsumenten mit dem Tode zu bestrafen. Die Droge selbst und die mit ihr einhergehenden Konsumgegenstände sollten öffentlich vernichtet werden.

Huangs Memorandum konnte neben dem Kaiser viele hochrangige Würdenträger des Reiches umstimmen und die Befürworter der Legalisierung, allen voran Xu Naiji, fielen in Ungnade.

Nach einem spektakulären Opiumfund in der nördlichen Hafenstadt Tianjin , welchen die chinesischen Behörden als Schmuggelware aus Kanton einordneten, entschloss sich der Kaiser, einen speziellen Gesandten nach Kanton zu entsenden, um den Schmuggel endgültig zu unterbinden.

Die Wahl fiel auf Lin Zexu , der als mit umfassenden Vollmachten ausgestatteter Provinzgouverneur von Hunan und Hubei zu den prominenten Befürwortern von Huangs Memorandum zählte.

Lin Zexu kam am März in Kanton an. Ihm vorausgegangen waren kaiserliche Befehle an den Gouverneur Deng Tingzhen, bekannte Opiumhändler zu inhaftieren.

Nach seiner Ankunft beschlagnahmten seine Männer mehrere tausend Pfund Opium von Chinesen und zerstörten öffentlich tausende Opiumpfeifen.

Am März forderte er per öffentlichem Edikt die ausländischen Händler in den Faktoreien auf, ihre Opiumvorräte seinen Behörden zu übergeben.

Als dem am Folgetag nicht entsprochen worden war, verbot er den Kaufleuten das Verlassen der Faktorei.

Drei Tage später drohte er mit der Hinrichtung des wichtigsten Honghändlers Howqua und eines weiteren chinesischen Geschäftspartners der Briten, sollte das Rauschmittel nicht ausgehändigt werden.

Die Händler erklärten sich zur Übergabe von Kisten Opium bereit. Dies lehnte Lin ab und bestellte den Opiumhändler Lancelot Dent ein, um ihn zu befragen.

Dent lehnte es ab, sich in die Hand der chinesischen Behörden zu begeben. März verfügte Lin, dass alle chinesischen Angestellten und Diener die Faktoreien zu verlassen hätten.

Ebenso verhängte er ein formelles Embargo über die rund verbliebenen britischen, amerikanischen und niederländischen Staatsangehörigen im Faktoreibezirk.

In derselben Nacht kehrte Charles Elliot , der britische Handelssuperintendent aus Macau, nach Kanton zurück. Die Honggilde versorgte die Europäer unter der Hand weiter mit Nahrungsmitteln; aufgrund des Aufkeimens von Ausschreitungen zwischen Europäern und chinesischen Sicherheitskräften und Zivilisten angesichts öffentlicher Hinrichtungen von chinesischen Opiumschmugglern vor den Faktoreien befürchtete dieser jedoch eine weitere Eskalation.

Der Marktwert der Elliot handelte eigenmächtig und überschritt seine Kompetenzen, eine Rücksprache mit London erschien ihm jedoch aufgrund des sechsmonatigen Postweges nicht möglich.

Durch das Auftreten Lins und die weitere Aufrechterhaltung der Blockade bis zur vollständigen Erfüllung der Übergabeforderung kam Elliot jedoch zu dem Schluss, dass ein militärisches Auftreten gegen die Qing notwendig sei.

April bat er in einem Brief an Lord Palmerston um die Entsendung einer Flotte mit dem Ziel, den Jangtse von See her zu blockieren.

Mai durften die Ausländer Kanton gen Macau verlassen. Das Opium wurde auf Befehl Daoguangs öffentlich vernichtet. Im Juli eskalierten die Spannungen jedoch erneut, als die chinesische Regierung die Herausgabe eines britischen Seemanns verlangte, der wegen des Totschlags eines Chinesen angeklagt war.

Da Elliot dem nicht Folge leistete, verbot Lin die Versorgung der britischen Schiffe in Macau. Palmerston sah das Versprechen Elliots nach einer Kompensation der britischen Händler als Kompetenzüberschreitung seines Untergebenen.

Die Forderung über rund 2 Millionen Pfund stellte die Whig -Regierung unter Lord Melbourne vor Probleme und das Kabinett traf sich am 1.

Oktober , um eine Lösung der Frage festzulegen. Lord Melbourne selbst brachte den Vorschlag ein, die Kompensationszahlungen der Ostindienkompanie aufzubürden, da sie vom jahrzehntelangen Opiumhandel profitiert hatte.

Palmerston setzte sich jedoch zusammen mit dem Kriegsminister Lord Macaulay mit dem Vorschlag durch, China durch eine militärische Machtdemonstration zur Übernahme der Forderung zu zwingen.

Palmerston legte hierfür einen Kriegsplan vor, der ihm nach dem Scheitern Napiers vom Opiumhändler James Matheson überreicht worden war.

Ein Linienschiff , zwei Fregatten und mehrere Dampfschiffe sollten von Europa nach China entsandt werden. Durch die Seeblockade der wichtigsten Häfen und Flussdeltas sollten der Küstenhandel und Binnentransport von Getreide lahmgelegt und die Qing zu einem Friedensschluss zu britischen Bedingungen gezwungen werden.

Ein Versuch der konservativen Opposition, den Krieg per Parlamentsbeschluss im Unterhaus zu stoppen, scheiterte am April Weiter führte er aus, er fürchte sich vor Gottes Urteil über England angesichts des nationalen Unrechts gegen China.

Die Strategie der britischen Regierung wurde von dem seit dem Misserfolg der Napiermission für den Krieg Lobbyismus treibenden Opiumhändler entscheidend mitgeprägt.

William Jardines und James Mathesons Eingaben und Briefe überzeugten die politischen Entscheidungsträger, dass vom ungeeinten und mit inneren Problemen beschäftigten Qing-Staat keine ernstzunehmende Kriegsanstrengung auf See zu erwarten sei.

Ebenso wiesen sie auf die Möglichkeit hin, die für China lebenswichtigen Seehandelswege an den Küsten zu blockieren. Ende Juli versammelten die Briten eine Flotte von 22 Kriegsschiffen, davon 16 Linienschiffe, vier Dampfschiffe und vier weitere Kriegsschiffe im von den ehemals in Kanton eingeschlossenen Briten gehaltenen Hongkong.

Begleitet wurden diese von bis britischen und indischen Soldaten in 27 Transportschiffen. Das militärische Kommando über die Flotte erhielt Admiral George Elliot , ein Cousin von Charles Elliot.

Die Struktur des Qing-Militärs stammte aus der Zeit der Gründung der Dynastie im Die erbliche Militärelite des Qing-Staates bildeten die aus Mandschu bestehenden Acht Banner.

Diese dienten als administrativer Rahmen für Rekrutierung und Training einer bestimmten Zahl von Soldaten im Kriegsfall; sie wurden dafür vom Staat mit Reis, Geld und Land entlohnt.

Aufgrund ihrer Nähe zum Thron stellten sie die mobile Interventionstruppe des Kaisers für Militärkampagnen dar.

Die zweite, jüngere Säule der Qing-Streitkräfte war die Grüne Standarte , eine Truppe von Berufssoldaten aus der Ethnie der Han.

Diese waren in Garnisonen über das Land verteilt stationiert und dienten vor allem der Aufrechterhaltung des Landfriedens und im Einsatz gegen Rebellen und Banditen.

Auf einen Bannersoldaten kamen rund drei Soldaten der Grünen Standarte. Seit dem Ende des Jahrhunderts verfielen die Finanzmittel zur Erhaltung des Heeres.

Dies schlug sich in der Versorgung der Bannersoldaten und dem Sold der Berufssoldaten nieder. Viele Mandschu gaben ihren erblichen Status auf und wandten sich zivilen Berufen zu.

Stellenweise wurden sogar Feuerwaffen und Artillerie wieder durch Bögen und Nahkampfwaffen ersetzt, um deren teuren Unterhalt einzusparen.

Die mit Schusswaffen ausgerüsteten Qing-Soldaten verfügten über Luntenschlossmusketen , welche auf portugiesischen Modellen aus der Mitte des Jahrhunderts basierten.

Die Schiffe waren nur zum Einsatz im Fluss- und Küstengewässer fähig. Jahrhunderts zusammen. Die in der Küstenartillerie defensiv eingesetzten Einheiten waren oft mit einhundert bis zweihundert Jahre alten Exemplaren ausgestattet.

Die Gesamtstärke des Qing-Heeres betrug auf dem Papier In Kanton standen jedoch bei Kriegsbeginn nur Soldaten zur Verfügung. Die Dynastie benötigte Monate, um eine Reserve von Diese Kämpfer wurden aus der Zivilbevölkerung als Hilfstruppen vor Ort rekrutiert und erhielten nur ein rudimentäres militärisches Training.

Ein besonderes Problem stellte die Korruption innerhalb der Truppe dar. So betrachteten die völlig unzureichend ausgebildeten chinesischen Offiziere ihre Gehälter oft als eine Art Pension ohne Gegenleistung.

Oft führten sie ein ausschweifendes Leben und verbrachten ihre Zeit mit Glücksspiel, Theaterbesuchen, Hahnenkämpfen und Opiumkonsum, oder sie betrieben nebenbei Wucher- und Hypothekengeschäfte.

Das Rechtssystem der Qing sah für Militärbefehlshaber zu Lande im Falle einer Niederlage die Todesstrafe als Sühneleistung vor. Die konfuzianistische Moral sah es als statthaft an diesem entweder durch Tod im Gefecht oder Suizid zuvorzukommen.

Dies führte dazu, dass Kommandeure in kritischen Momenten ausfielen, Berichte an die Zentralregierung im Eigeninteresse schönten und machten es dem militärischen System der Qing schwer aus Niederlagen rationale Schlüsse zu ziehen.

Die britische Seite verfügte auf See über Linienschiffe mit metallbeschlagenen Holzrümpfen. Dieser Schiffstyp verfügte über bis zu Kanonen.

Ebenso stellte die Ostindienkompanie mit der Nemesis das erste dampfgetriebene Kriegsschiff in Ganzmetallbauweise zur Verfügung.

Dieses unter Geheimhaltung eigens für den Krieg in Dienst gestellte Schiff erreichte im November Macau. Zu Lande verfügten die Briten über disziplinierte, in Linientaktik operierende Militäreinheiten.

Die Auslösung des Schusses erfolgte über ein Steinschloss. Die Waffen mit gezogenem Lauf der Briten waren den chinesischen Luntenschlossmusketen an Feuerwirkung, Reichweite, Präzision, Feuerrate und Zuverlässigkeit deutlich überlegen.

Bezüglich der Artillerie verfügten die Briten über die damals modernste Ausrüstung, die auf Basis aktueller naturwissenschaftlicher Erkenntnisse konstruiert war.

Auf See ermöglichte die Karronade das Abfeuern schneller, wirkungsvoller Salven auf gegnerische Schiffe. Gegen die nach oben offenen Forts der Qing brachten Haubitzen mit ihrem Steilfeuer und Raketen einen taktischen Vorteil.

Aufgrund ihrer modernen Bauart und technisch höherwertigen Verarbeitung war die britische Artillerie ihrem chinesischen Gegenstück an Reichweite, Feuerkraft und Mobilität deutlich überlegen.

Die Artillerieoffiziere waren in Ballistik unterrichtet und erreichten durch die Berechnung der Flugbahn eines Projektils eine deutlich bessere Treffergenauigkeit als Anwender traditioneller Verfahren.

Karl Gützlaff hatte seit zunächst in der Opiumhandelsgesellschaft ein Spionagenetzwerk in Südchina ausgebaut. Nach Beginn des Krieges begleitete er das Expeditionskorps und stellte seine Fähigkeiten und Kontakte dem britischen Militär zur Verfügung.

Das britische Expeditionskorps bestand zum Kriegsende aus 25 konventionellen und 14 dampfgetriebenen Kriegsschiffen sowie einem Hospitalschiff und zwei Schiffen für Vermessungsaufgaben.

Dazu gehörten rund Zusammen mit dem seefahrenden Personal kam das Expeditionskorps an seinem höchsten Personalstand zu Kriegsende auf knapp Das ist ein Resultat der geringen Qualität unserer Munition.

Wenn sie [die Briten] feuern, ist es so, als wenn ein ganzer Trupp unserer Soldaten nacheinander feuert.

Wenn wir einen Schuss abfeuern, brauchen unsere Soldaten viel Zeit für hastige Bewegungen, bevor sie erneut feuern.

Dies ist das Ergebnis unserer mangelnden Vertrautheit mit diesen Künsten. Es scheint, sie haben nie ein Gefecht über acht bis zehn Li erlebt, bei dem man kämpfen muss, ohne das Gesicht des Feindes zu sehen.

Citing what he mistakenly understood to be a strict prohibition on opium within Great Britain, Lin questioned how Britain could declare itself moral while its merchants profited from the legal sale in China of a drug that was banned in Britain.

He also closed the Pearl River Channel , trapping British traders in Canton. The British Superintendent of Trade in China, Charles Elliot , protested the decision to forcibly seize the opium stockpiles.

He ordered all ships carrying opium to flee and prepare for battle. Lin responded by besieging the foreign dealers in the foreign quarter of Canton, and kept them from communicating with their ships in port.

This promise, and the inability of the British government to pay it without causing a political storm, was used as an important casus belli for the subsequent British attack.

The stockpile was publicly destroyed on the beach outside Canton. After the opium was surrendered, trade was restarted on the strict condition that no more opium be shipped into China.

Looking for a way to effectively police foreign trade and purge corruption, Lin and his advisers decided to reform the existing bond system. Under this system, a foreign captain and the Cohong merchant who had purchased the goods off of his ship swore that the vessel carried no illegal goods.

Upon examining the records of the port, Lin was infuriated to find that in the 20 years since opium had been declared illegal, not a single infraction had been reported.

Trade in regular goods continued unabated, and the scarcity of opium caused by the seizure of the foreign warehouses caused the black market to flourish.

The opportunity caused by the sharp rise in the price of opium was seized upon by some of the Cohong trading houses and smugglers, who were able to evade commissioner Lin's efforts and smuggled more opium into China.

Superintendent Elliot was aware of the smugglers' activities on Lintin and was under orders to stop them, but feared that any action by the Royal Navy could spark a war and withheld his ships.

In early July a group of British merchant sailors in Kowloon became intoxicated after consuming rice liqueur. Two of the sailors became agitated with and beat to death Lin Weixi, a villager from nearby Tsim Sha Tsui.

However, he refused a request to turn the sailors over to Chinese authorities, fearing they would be killed in accordance with the Chinese legal code.

He invited the Qing authorities to observe and comment on the proceedings, but the offer was declined. Angered by the violation of China's sovereignty, Lin recalled Chinese labourers from Macau and issued an edict preventing the sale of food to the British.

Rumors spread among the British that it had been Chinese soldiers who had attacked the ship, and Elliot ordered all British ships to leave the coast of China by 24 August.

The commissioner travelled in person to the city, where he was welcomed by some of the inhabitants as a hero who had restored law and order.

On 30 August HMS Volage arrived to defend the fleet from a potential Chinese attack, and Elliot warned Qing authorities in Kowloon that the embargo on food and water must be ended soon.

Early on 4 September Elliot dispatched an armed schooner and a cutter to Kowloon to buy provisions from Chinese peasants. The two ships approached three Chinese war junks in the harbour and requested permission to land men in order to procure supplies.

The British were allowed through and basic necessities were provided to the British by Chinese sailors, but the Chinese commander inside Kowloon fort refused to allow the locals to trade with the British and confined the townspeople inside the settlement.

The situation grew more intense as the day went on, and in the afternoon Elliot issued an ultimatum that, if the Chinese refused to allow the British to purchase supplies, they would be fired upon.

A pm deadline set by Elliot passed and the British ships opened fire on the Chinese vessels. The junks returned fire, and Chinese gunners on land began to fire at the British ships.

Nightfall ended the battle, and the Chinese junks withdrew, ending what would be known as the Battle of Kowloon.

Many British officers wanted to launch a land attack on Kowloon fort the next day, but Elliot decided against it, stating that such an action would cause "great injury and irritation" to the town's inhabitants.

The men of the English nation desire nothing but peace; but they cannot submit to be poisoned and starved. The Imperial cruizers they have no wish to molest or impede; but they must not prevent the people from selling.

To deprive men of food is the act only of the unfriendly and hostile. Having driven off the Chinese ships, the British fleet began to purchase provisions from the local villagers, often with the aid of bribed Chinese officials in Kowloon.

In late October the merchant ship Thomas Coutts arrived in China and sailed to Canton. Thomas Coutts ' s Quaker owners refused on religious grounds to deal in opium, a fact that the Chinese authorities were aware of.

The ship's captain, Warner, believed Elliot had exceeded his legal authority by banning the signing of the "no opium trade" bond, [99] and negotiated with the governor of Canton.

Warner hoped that all British ships not carrying opium could negotiate to legally unload their goods at Chuenpi, an island near Humen.

To prevent other British ships from following Thomas Coutts ' s precedent, Elliot ordered a blockade of British shipping in the Pearl River.

Fighting began on 3 November , when a second British ship, Royal Saxon , attempted to sail to Canton. The British Royal Navy ships HMS Volage and HMS Hyacinth fired warning shots at Royal Saxon.

In response to this commotion, a fleet of Chinese war junks under the command of Guan Tianpei sailed out to protect Royal Saxon.

In reality, the Chinese had been out-classed by the British vessels and several Chinese ships were disabled. The governor refused for fear that the Chinese would discontinue supplying food and other necessities to Macau, and on 14 January the Daoguang Emperor asked all foreign merchants in China to halt material assistance to the British.

Following the Chinese crackdown on the opium trade, discussion arose as to how Britain would respond, as the public in the United States and Britain had previously expressed outrage that Britain was supporting the opium trade.

However, a great deal of anger was expressed over the treatment of British diplomats and towards the protectionist trading policies of Qing China.

The Whig controlled government in particular advocated war with China, and the pro-Whig press printed stories about Chinese "despotism and cruelty.

Since August , reports had been published in London newspapers about troubles at Canton and the impending war with China.

The Queen's Annual Address to the House of Lords on 16 January expressed the concern that "Events have happened in China which have occasioned an interruption of the commercial intercourse of my subjects with that country.

I have given, and shall continue to give, the most serious attention to a matter so deeply affecting the interests of my subjects and the dignity of my Crown.

The Whig Melbourne Government was then in a weak political situation. It barely survived a motion of non-confidence on 31 January by a majority of The Tories saw the China Question as an opportunity to beat the Government, and James Graham moved a motion on 7 April in the House of Commons, censuring the Government's "want of foresight and precaution" and "their neglect to furnish the superintendent at Canton with powers and instructions" to deal with the opium trade.

Foreign Secretary Palmerston , a politician known for his aggressive foreign policy and advocacy for free trade, led the pro war camp.

Palmerston strongly believed that the destroyed opium should be considered property, not contraband, and as such reparations had to be made for its destruction.

He justified military action by saying that no one could "say that he honestly believed the motive of the Chinese Government to have been the promotion of moral habits" and that the war was being fought to stem China's balance of payments deficit.

Other merchants called for an opening of free trade with China, and it was commonly cited that the Chinese consumers were the driving factor of the opium trade.

The periodic expulsion of British merchants from Canton and the refusal of the Qing government to treat Britain as a diplomatic equal were seen as a slight to national pride.

Sir James Graham , Lord Phillip Stanhope , and William Ewart Gladstone headed the anti-war faction in Britain, and denounced the ethics of the opium trade.

The Tories in the House of Commons thus failed to deter the Government from proceeding with the war and stop the British warships already on their way to China.

Under strong pressure and lobbying from various trade and manufacturer associations, the Whig cabinet under Prime Minister Melbourne decided on 1 October to send an expedition to China.

In early November , Palmerston instructed Auckland, Governor General of India, to prepare military forces for deployment in China. On 20 February Palmerston who remained unaware of the First Battle of Chuenpi in November drafted two letters detailing the British response to the situation in China.

One letter was addressed to the Elliots, the other to the Daoguang Emperor and the Qing government. The letter to the Emperor informed China that Great Britain had sent a military expeditionary force to the Chinese coast.

These measures of hostility on the part of Great Britain against China are not only justified, but even rendered absolutely necessary, by the outrages which have been committed by the Chinese Authorities against British officers and Subjects, and these hostilities will not cease, until a satisfactory arrangement shall have been made by the Chinese Government.

In his letter to the Elliots, Palmerston instructed the commanders to set up a blockade of the Pearl River and forward to a Chinese official the letter from Palmerston addressing the Chinese Emperor.

They were to then capture the Chusan Islands, blockade the mouth of the Yangtze River, start negotiations with Qing officials, and finally sail the fleet into the Bohai Sea , where they would send another copy of the aforementioned letter to Beijing.

Lord Palmerston left it to Superintendent Elliot's discretion as to how these objectives would be fulfilled, but noted that while negotiation would be a preferable outcome, he did not trust that diplomacy would succeed, writing;.

To sum up in a few words the result of this Instruction, you will see, from what I have stated, that the British Government demands from that of China satisfaction for the past and security for the future; and does not choose to trust to negotiation for obtaining either of these things; but has sent out a Naval and Military Force with orders to begin at once to take the Measures necessary for attaining the object in view.

The Chinese naval forces in Canton were under the command of Admiral Guan Tianpei , who had fought the British at Chuenpi.

The Qing southern army and garrisons were under the command of General Yang Fang. Overall command was invested in the Daoguang Emperor and his court.

Left without a major base of operations in China, the British withdrew their merchant shipping from the region while maintaining the Royal Navy's China squadron in the islands around the mouth of the Pearl River.

From London, Palmerston continued to dictate operations in China, ordering the East India Company to divert troops from India in preparation for a limited war against the Chinese.

It was decided that the war would not be fought as a full-scale conflict, but rather as a punitive expedition. Major General Hugh Gough was selected to command the British land forces, and was promoted to overall commander of British forces in China.

British plans to form an expeditionary force were started immediately after the January vote. Several infantry regiments were raised in the British isles, and the completion of ships already under construction was expedited.

To conduct the upcoming war, Britain also began to draw on forces from its overseas empire. In terms of naval forces, the ships earmarked for the expedition were either posted in remote colonies or under repair, and Oriental Crisis of and the resulting risk of war between Britain, France, and the Ottoman Empire over Syria drew the attention of the Royal Navy's European fleets away from China.

A number of steamers were purchased by the Royal Navy and attached to the expedition as transports. The unseasonable summer weather of India and the Strait of Malacca slowed the British deployment, and a number of accidents decreased the combat readiness of the expedition.

Most notably, both of the gun ships of the line that the Royal Navy intended to use against Chinese fortifications were temporarily put out of action by hull damage.

While they waited for more ships to arrive, the Royal Marines practised amphibious invasions on the beach, first by landing ashore in boats, then forming lines and advancing on mock fortifications.

In late June the first part of the expeditionary force arrived in China aboard 15 barracks ships, four steam-powered gunboats and 25 smaller boats.

The British issued an ultimatum demanding the Qing Government pay compensation for losses suffered from interrupted trade and the destruction of opium, but were rebuffed by the Qing authorities in Canton.

Zhoushan Island , the largest and best defended of the islands was the primary target for the attack, as was its vital port of Dinghai.

When the British fleet arrived off of Zhoushan, Elliot demanded the city surrender. The commander of the Chinese garrison refused the command, stating that he could not surrender and questioning what reason the British had for harassing Dinghai, as they had been driven out of Canton.

Fighting began, a fleet of 12 small junks were destroyed by the Royal navy, and British marines captured the hills to the south of the Dinghai.

The British captured the city itself after an intense naval bombardment on 5 July forced the surviving Chinese defenders to withdraw. In the fall of disease broke out in the Dinghai garrison, forcing the British to evacuate soldiers to Manila and Calcutta.

By the beginning of only of the men who had originally occupied Dinghai were left, with many of those remaining incapable of fighting. An estimated British soldiers died from disease, with the Cameron and Bengali volunteers suffering the most deaths, while the Royal Marines were relatively unscathed.

Having captured Dinghai, the British expedition divided its forces, sending one fleet south to the Pearl River while sending a second fleet north to the Yellow Sea.

The northern fleet sailed to Peiho , where Elliot personally presented Palmerston's letter to the Emperor to Qing authorities from the capital.

After a week of negotiations, Qishan and Elliot agreed to relocate to the Pearl River for further negotiations. In return for the courtesy of the British to withdraw from the Yellow Sea, Qishan promised to requisition imperial funds as restitution for British merchants who had suffered damages.

The war, however, was not concluded and both sides continued to engage each other. In the late spring of reinforcements arrived from India in preparation for an offensive against Canton.

A flotilla of transports brought men of the professionally trained 37th Madras Native Infantry to Dinghai, where their arrival boosted British morale.

Portugal remained neutral in the conflict, but after the battle was willing to allow British ships to dock in Macau, a decision that granted the British a functioning port in Southern China.

Five months after the British victory at Chusan, the northern elements of the expedition sailed south to Humen , known to the British as The Bogue.

Bremer judged that gaining control of the Pearl River and Canton would put the British in a strong negotiating position with the Qing authorities, as well as allow for the renewal of trade when the war ended.

While the British campaigned in the north, Qing Admiral Guan Tianpei greatly reinforced the Qing positions in Humen Bocca Tigris , suspecting sources state that Guan had been preparing for an eventual attack on the position since Napier's attack in [] that the British would attempt to force their way up the Pearl River to Canton.

The Humen forts blocked transit of the river, and were garrisoned with men and cannon. By the time the British fleet was ready for action, 10, Qing soldiers were in position to defend Canton and the surrounding area.

On 7 January the British won a decisive victory in the Second Battle of Chuenpi , destroying 11 Junks of the Chinese southern fleet and capturing the Humen forts.

The victory allowed the British to set up a blockade of The Bogue, a blow that forced the Qing navy to retreat upriver.

Knowing the strategic value of Pearl River Delta to China and aware that British naval superiority made a reconquest of the region unlikely, Qishan attempted to prevent the war from widening further by negotiating a peace treaty with Britain.

However, the legal status of the opium trade was not resolved and instead left open to be discussed at a future date. Despite the success of the negotiations between Qishan and Elliot, both of their respective governments refused to sign the convention.

The Daoguang Emperor was infuriated that Qing territory would be given up in a treaty that had been signed without his permission, and ordered Qishan arrested he was later sentenced to death; the sentence was then commuted to military service.

Lord Palmerston recalled Elliot from his post and refused to sign the convention, wanting more concessions to be forced from the Chinese per his original instructions.

The brief interlude in the fighting ended in the beginning of February after the Chinese refused to reopen Canton to British trade.

On 19 February a longboat from HMS Nemesis came under fire from a fort on North Wangtong Island , prompting a British response.

The British captured the remaining Bogue forts on 26 February during the Battle of the Bogue and the Battle of First Bar on the following day, allowing the fleet to move further upriver towards Canton.

On 2 March the British destroyed a Qing fort near Pazhou and captured Whampoa , an action that directly threatened Canton's east flank.

Superintendent Elliot who was unaware that he had been dismissed , and the Governor-General of Canton declared a 3-day truce on 3 March.

Between the 3rd and the 6th the British forces that had evacuated Chusan per the Convention of Chuenpi arrived in the Pearl River. The Chinese military was likewise reinforced, and by 16 March General Yang Fang commanded 30, men in the area surrounding Canton.

While the main British fleet prepared to sail up the Pearl River to Canton, a group of three warships departed for the Xi River estuary, intending to navigate the waterway between Macau and Canton.

With the Pearl River cleared of Chinese defences, the British debated advancing on Canton. Although the truce had ended on 6 March, Superintendent Elliot believed that the British should negotiate with the Qing authorities from their current position of strength rather than risk a battle in Canton.

The Qing army made no aggressive moves against the British and instead began to fortify the city. Chinese military engineers began to establish a number of mud earthworks on the riverbank, sank junks to create riverblocks , and started constructing fire rafts and gunboats.

Chinese merchants were ordered to remove all of the silk and tea from Canton to impede trade, and the local populace was barred from selling food to the British ships on the river.

These actions convinced Elliot that the Chinese were preparing to fight, and following the return of the ships of the Broadway expedition to the fleet, the British attacked Canton on 18 March, taking the Thirteen Factories with very few casualties and raising the Union Jack above the British factory.

After several days of further military successes, British forces commanded the high ground around Canton.

Another truce was declared on 20 March. Against the advice of some of his captains, Elliot withdrew most of the Royal Navy warships downriver to the Bocca Tigris.

In mid April Yishan Qishan's replacement as Viceroy of Liangguang and the Daoguang Emperor's cousin arrived in Canton. He declared that trade should continue to remain open, sent emissaries to Elliot, and began to gather military assets outside Canton.

The Qing army camped outside of the city soon numbered 50,, and the money earned from the reopened trade was spent repairing and expanding Canton's defences.

Concealed artillery batteries were built along the Pearl River, Chinese soldiers were deployed in Whampoa and the Bocca Tigris, and hundreds of small river craft were armed for war.

A bulletin sent from the Daoguang Emperor commanded the Qing forces to "Exterminate the rebels at all points," and orders were given to drive the British from the Pearl River before reclaiming Hong Kong and driving the invaders out of China altogether.

In May many Cohong merchants and their families left the city, raising further concerns about a renewal of hostilities.

Rumors spread that Chinese divers were being trained to drill holes in the hulls of British ships, and that fleets of fire rafts were being prepared for deployment against the Royal Navy.

On the night of 21 May the Qing launched a coordinated night attack on the British army and navy. A large formation of fire rafts connected by a chain was sent drifting towards the British ships at Canton, and fishing boats armed with matchlock guns began to engage the Royal Navy.

The British warships were able to evade the attack, and stray rafts set Canton's waterfront on fire, illuminating the river and foiling the night attack.

Downriver at Whampoa the Chinese attacked the British vessels at anchor there and attempted to prevent ships from reaching Canton.

Having suspected an attack, and as a consequence delaying his own offensive Major General Gough consolidated the British forces at Hong Kong and ordered a rapid advance upriver to Canton.

These reinforcements arrived on 25 May, and the British counter-attacked, taking the last four Qing forts above Canton and bombarding the city. On 29 May a crowd of around 20, Cantonese villagers and townspeople attacked and defeated a company of 60 Indian sepoys in what became known as the Sanyuanli Incident , and Gough ordered a retreat back to the river.

The fighting subsided on 30 May and Canton came fully under British occupation. Under the terms of the limited peace later widely referred to as "The Ransom of Canton" , the British were paid to withdraw beyond the Bogue forts, an action they completed by 31 May.

The defence of Canton was declared a diplomatic success by Yishan. In a letter to the Emperor, he wrote that the barbarians had begged "the chief general that he would implore the great Emperor in their behalf, that he would have mercy upon them, and cause their debts to be repaid them, and graciously permit them to carry on their commerce, when they would immediately withdraw their ships from the Bocca Tigris, and never dare again to raise any disturbance.

The imperial court continued to debate China's next course of action for the war, as the Daoguang Emperor wanted Hong Kong retaken.

Following their withdrawal from Canton, the British relocated the expeditionary force to Hong Kong. Just as with the Chinese commanders, the British leaders debated how the war should be continued.

Elliot wanted to cease military operations and reopen trade, while Major General Gough wanted to capture the city of Amoy and blockade the Yangtze River.

Pottinger wanted to negotiate terms with the Qing for the entire country of China, rather than just the Pearl River, and so he turned away Chinese envoys from Canton and gave permission for the expeditionary force to proceed with its war plans.

Admiral Sir William Parker also arrived in Hong Kong to replace Humphrey Fleming Senhouse who had died of a fever on 29 June as the commander of the British naval forces in China.

It was agreed by the British commanders that combat operations should be moved north to put pressure on Peking, and on 21 August the fleet sailed for Amoy.

On 25 August the British fleet entered the Jiulong River estuary and arrived at Amoy. The city was prepared for a naval assault, as Qing military engineers had built several artillery batteries into the granite cliffs overlooking the river.

A purely naval assault was considered too risky by Parker, prompting Gough to order a combined naval and ground attack on the defences.

On 26 August British marines and regular infantry under the covering fire of the Royal Navy flanked and destroyed the Chinese defences guarding the river.

Several large British ships failed to destroy the largest of the Chinese batteries which withstood over 12, cannonballs being fired at it , [] so the position was scaled and captured by the British infantry.

The city of Amoy was abandoned on 27 August, and British soldiers entered the inner town where they blew up the citadel's powder magazine.

As Lord Palmerston wanted Amoy to become an international trade port at the end of the war, Gough ordered that no looting be tolerated and had officers enforce the death penalty for anyone found to be plundering.

However, many Chinese merchants refused to ask for British protection out of fear of being branded as traitors to the Qing dynasty.

The British withdrew to an island on the river, where they established a small garrison and blockaded the Jiulong River. With the city empty of any army, peasants, criminals, and deserters looted the town.

The Qing army retook the city and restored order several days later, after which the city governor declared that a victory had been won and 5 British ships sunk.

In Britain, changes in Parliament resulted in Lord Palmerston being removed from his post as Foreign Minister on 30 August. William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne replaced him, and sought a more measured approach to the situation in China.

Lamb remained a supporter of the war. In September , the British transport ship Nerbudda was shipwrecked on a reef off the northern coast of Taiwan after a brief gunnery duel with a Chinese fort.

This sinking was followed by the loss of the brig Ann on another reef in March The survivors of both ships were captured and marched to southern Taiwan, where they were imprisoned.

This became known as the Nerbudda incident. October saw the British solidify their control over the central Chinese coast.

Chusan had been exchanged for Hong Kong on the authority of Qishan in January , after which the island had been re-garrisoned by the Qing.

Fearing that the Chinese would improve the island's defences, the British began a military invasion. The British attacked the Qing on 1 October.

The battle of the Second Capture of Chusan ensued. The British forces killed Qing soldiers and captured Chusan. The victory reestablished British control over Dinghai's important harbour.

On 10 October a British naval force bombarded and captured a fort on the outskirts of Ningbo in central China.

A battle broke out between the British army and a Chinese force of men on the road between the town of Chinhai and Ningbo, during which the Chinese were routed.

Following the defeat, Chinese authorities evacuated Ningbo and the empty city was taken by the British on 13 October.

An imperial cannon manufactory in the city was captured by the British, reducing the ability of the Qing to replace their lost equipment, and the fall of the city threatened the nearby Qiantang River.

Admiral Parker and Superintendent Pottinger wanted a percentage of all captured Chinese property to be turned over to the British as legal prizes of war, while General Gough argued that this would only turn the Chinese population against the British, and that if property had to be seized, it should be public property rather than private.

Gough later stated that this edict would compel his men to "punish one set of robbers for the benefit of another. Fighting ceased for the winter of while the British resupplied.

In late the Daoguang Emperor discovered that his officials in Canton and Amoy had been sending him embellished reports.

He ordered the governor of Guangxi , Liang Chang-chü , to send him clear accounts of the events in Canton, noting that since Guangxi was a neighbouring province, Liang must be receiving independent accounts.

He warned Liang that he would be able to verify his information by obtaining secret inquiries from other places. Now aware of the severity of the British threat, Chinese towns and cities began to fortify against naval incursions.

In the spring of the Daoguang Emperor ordered his cousin Yijing to retake the city of Ningpo. In the ensuing Battle of Ningpo on 10 March the British garrison repelled the assault with rifle fire and naval artillery.

At Ningpo the British lured the Qing army into the city streets before opening fire, resulting in heavy Chinese casualties. The important harbour of Zhapu was captured on 18 May in the Battle of Chapu.

A holdout of soldiers of the Eight Banners stalled the advance of British army for several hours, an act of heroism that was commended by Gough.

With many Chinese ports now blockaded or under British occupation, Major General Gough sought to cripple the finances of the Qing Empire by striking up the Yangtze River.

On 14 June the mouth of the Huangpu River was captured by the British fleet. On 16 June the Battle of Woosung occurred, after which the British captured the towns of Wusong and Baoshan.

The undefended outskirts of Shanghai were occupied by the British on 19 June. Following the battle, Shanghai was looted by retreating Qing banner-men, British soldiers, and local civilians.

Qing Admiral Chen Huacheng was killed while defending a fort in Woosong. The fall of Shanghai left the vital city of Nanjing Known as Jiangning under the Qing vulnerable.

The Qing amassed an army of 56, Manchu Banner-men and Han Green Standards to defend Liangjiang Province, and strengthened their river defences on the Yangtze.

However, British naval activity in Northern China led to resources and manpower being withdrawn to defend against a feared attack on Beijing. Had it been signed, the British forces would have been paid to not enter the Yangtze River.

On 14 July the British fleet on the Yangtze began to sail up the river. Reconnaissance alerted Gough to the logistical importance of the city of Zhenjiang Chinkiang , and plans were made to capture it.

The Qing commanders inside the city were disorganised, with Chinese sources stating that over traitors were executed in Zhenjiang prior to the battle.

The Chinese defenders initially retreated into the surrounding hills, causing a premature British landing.

Fighting erupted when thousands of Chinese soldiers emerged from the city, beginning the Battle of Zhenjiang. British engineers blew open the western gate and stormed into the city, where fierce street to street fighting ensued.

Zhenjiang was devastated by the battle, with many Chinese soldiers and their families committing suicide rather than be taken prisoner.

After capturing Zhenjiang the British fleet cut the vital Grand Canal , paralysing the Caoyun system and severely disrupting the Chinese ability to distribute grain throughout the Empire.

They arrived outside the Jiangning District on 9 August, and were in position to assault the city by 11 August. Although explicit permission to negotiate had not yet been granted by the emperor, Qing officials inside the city agreed to a British request to negotiate.

On 14 August a Chinese delegation led by the Manchu high court official Qiying Kiying and Llipu departed Nanking for the British fleet.

Negotiations lasted for several weeks as the British delegation insisted the treaty be accepted by Daoguang Emperor. The court advised the emperor to accept the treaty, and on 21 August the Daoguang Emperor authorised his diplomats to sign the peace treaty with the British.

The British military superiority during the conflict drew heavily on the success of the Royal Navy. British warships carried more guns than their Chinese opponents and were manoeuvrable enough to evade Chinese boarding actions.

Steam ships such as HMS Nemesis were able to move against winds and tides in Chinese rivers, and were armed with heavy guns and congreve rockets.

In terms of gunpowder, the British formula was better manufactured and contained more sulphur than the Chinese mixture. British artillery was lighter owing to improved forging methods and more manoeuvrable than the cannons used by the Chinese.

As with the naval artillery, British guns out-ranged the Chinese cannon. In terms of tactics, the British forces in China followed doctrines established during the Napoleonic Wars that had been adapted during the various colonial wars of the s and s.

Many of the British soldiers deployed to China were veterans of colonial wars in India and had experience fighting larger but technologically inferior armies.

Companies would commence firing volleys into the enemy ranks until they retreated. If a position needed to be taken, an advance or charge with bayonets would be ordered.

Light infantry companies screened the line infantry formations, protecting their flanks and utilising skirmishing tactics to disrupt the enemy.

During the conflict, the British superiority in range, rate of fire, and accuracy allowed the infantry to deal significant damage to their enemy before the Chinese could return fire.

The overall strategy of the British during the war was to inhibit the finances of the Qing Empire, with the ultimate goal of acquiring a colonial possession on the Chinese coast.

This was accomplished through the capture of Chinese cities and by blockading major river systems. This strategy was planned and implemented by Major General Gough, who was able to operate with minimal input from the British government after Superintendent Elliot was recalled in A Royal Navy steamship destroying a Chinese junk with a Congreve rocket.

Lightly armoured Chinese warships were decimated by heavy guns and explosive weaponry. China did not have a unified navy. Return to Book Page.

Preview — Opiumkrieg by Rudolf Brunngraber. Opiumkrieg by Rudolf Brunngraber. Get A Copy. Paperback , pages. Published by Edition Nautilus first published More Details Original Title.

Other Editions 1. All Editions Add a New Edition Combine. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up.

To ask other readers questions about Opiumkrieg , please sign up. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews.

Showing Average rating 4. Rating details.

Opiumkrieg
Opiumkrieg
Opiumkrieg Keine Kosten. Dazu gehörten der freie Zugang zu fünf Häfen, feste Zollsätze und die Abschaffung des chinesischen Monopols im Handel mit Opium. Ihm sei es nur darauf angekommen, an das Unrecht zu erinnern, das China mit und seit den Opiumkriegen Carbon Altered. Opiumkrieg Connected to: {{::ecc2006.com}} aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie {{bottomLinkPreText}} {{bottomLinkText}} This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by contributors (read/edit). Text is available under the CC . From Spielbox In Opiumkrieg (The Opium War ), the goal is to be at the right place at the right time and then do the right thing. On the eve of the first Opium War, the players sail their junks through the China Sea and buy silk, spices, porcelain or tea from the various harbors. These wares are sold for a heavy profit in the canton where the English . Find the perfect Erster Opiumkrieg stock photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images. Select from premium Erster Opiumkrieg of the highest quality. The cannons were long silent when William Jardine and James Matheson were born in the final decades of the eighteenth century. Yet, for them as for many contemporary young Scots, events in a Highland field many years before their births influenced the direction of their lives and led them to seek their fortunes far away from the graves of the clansmen who died on that field. Der erste Opiumkrieg -Um wurde versucht der Opium-Kauf und Verkauf durch den "Pharmacy Act" kontrolliert zu werden (Schlug jedoch fehl) -Die Oberschicht sah die Opiumsucht als "Missbrauch der Droge" an und es war für sie nur eine Angewohnheit -Im Der Erste Opiumkrieg war eine chinesisch-britische Auseinandersetzung im Jahrhundert. Nach dem Erfolg des Vereinigten Königreichs begann China sich für d. Das Drama beschreibt in chronologischer Reihenfolge den verzweifelten Kampf des kaiserlichen Generalgouverneurs Lin Zexu gegen die britischen Opiumhändler de. Note: Citations are based on reference standards. However, formatting rules can vary widely between applications and fields of interest or study. The specific requirements or preferences of your reviewing publisher, classroom teacher, institution or organization should be applied.

Seit 2010 prsentiert Opiumkrieg die Sendung "Conan" auf CBS. - Der Friedensvertrag von Nanking

Das erste war die Wiederherstellung der inneren Ordnung.

Facebooktwitterredditpinterestlinkedinmail

0 Gedanken zu “Opiumkrieg”

Schreibe einen Kommentar

Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht veröffentlicht. Erforderliche Felder sind mit * markiert.